Topological Defects is a long term drawing and installation project of 500 6”x6” individual drawings created using 10 tools. Water, ink, graphite, 

4 calligraphy nibs, white grease pencil, and 2 brushes. The intention of the project is to explore the possible outcomes of a controlled environment that, in ways, emulates and subverts, ecological structure. 

Topological defects, scientifically speaking, are the disruptions in topology. Topology is the mathematical study of continuous surfaces that may stretch or bend but not tear; important properties of topology are connectedness and compactness.

Topological Defects Examined further investigates topology, scale, and materiality.